Antigen Retrival Technique
The demonstration of many antigens can be significantly improved by the pretreatment with the antigen retrieval reagents that break the protein cross-links formed by formalin fixation and thereby uncover hidden antigenic sites. To view the entire seminar material, please visit the PDF.
Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining
For routine examination, haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) is the stain of choice. H&E produces colors different tissue structures, which would otherwise be transparent, to get detailed view of the tissue. The diagnosis of most malignancies is based largely on this procedure. To view the entire seminar material, please visit the PDF.
Tissue Freezing Methods
Tissue for freezing should be frozen or fixed as promptly as possible after cessation of circulation to avoid morphological distortions and damage. The objective is to freeze so rapidly that water does not have time to form crystals and remains in a vitreous form that does not expand when solidified. To view the entire seminar material, please visit the PDF.