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Gene Regulation and Mutation

Research into the mechanisms of gene regulation and the effects of gene mutations.

Labs in This Area

 Daniel Arango Lab

Post-transcriptional RNA modifications in protein synthesis, proliferative disorders and stress conditions

 

Research Description

Our laboratory investigates the mechanisms by which post-transcriptional modifications of RNA, also known as the epitranscriptome, regulate protein synthesis and how these mechanisms go awry in proliferative disorders and stress conditions. By integrating RNA biology, genomics, cell biology, and animal models, our research program will potentially uncover novel mechanisms of gene expression regulation and their contributions to disease as well as generate new tools and methods that can be harnessed for therapeutic means. 

For more information, see Dr. Arango's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Arango's publications in PubMed.

Contact

Dr. Arango

 Grant Barish Lab

Transcriptional regulators of inflammation and metabolism

Research Description

The burgeoning epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus presents a major health and therapeutic challenge.  Transcriptional regulation is the fundamental control mechanism for metabolism, but a gap remains in our knowledge of gene regulatory pathways that control lipid and glucose homeostasis.  Thus, we seek to identify modulable pathways that may be leveraged to counteract diabetes mellitus and its comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease.  In this effort, we use a variety of genetic, molecular, next-generation sequencing, biochemical methods and physiological models.  Our recent work has helped to reveal the genomic architecture for transcriptional regulation in innate immunity, which plays a key role in both diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.  Surprisingly, although macrophage regulatory elements are often at significant linear distance from their associated genes, we identified interplay between transcriptional activators and repressors that is highly proximate, occurring at shared nucleosomal domains (Genes & Development, 2010).  Moreover, we discovered a powerful role for the BCL6 transcriptional repressor to maintain macrophage quiescence and prevent atherosclerosis (Cell Metabolism, 2012). 

Currently, we are exploring the impact of activator–repressor interactions on enhancer function and transcription, the signal-dependent control of repression and the functional impact of transcriptional activators and repressors on inflammatory and metabolic disease. In particular, we strive to further understand the role for B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a C2H2-type zinc finger repressor, in innate immunity and metabolism. 

In related work, we are developing new methods for cell-specific isolation of RNA and chromatin from tissues composed of mixed cell populations. These genetic tools will allow us to explore transcriptional regulation in living animals with unprecedented precision and global scope using transcriptome sequencing and ChIP-sequencing. We anticipate that these approaches will identify new candidate regulators and mechanisms underlying cardiovascular and metabolic disease. 

For more information, please see Dr. Barish's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Barish's publications in PubMed.

Graduate Students

Madhavi Senagolage
Meredith Chase
Krithika Ramachandran

Contact

Dr. Barish

 Joseph Bass Lab

Circadian and metabolic gene networks in the development of diabetes and obesity

Research Description

An epidemic of obesity and diabetes has continued to sweep through the industrialized world, already posing a risk to over one-third of the US population who are overweight or obese. Although both physical inactivity and overnutrition are tied to “diabesity,” recent evidence indicates that disruption of internal circadian clocks and sleep also play a role. The primary research focus in our laboratory is to apply genetic and biochemical approaches to understand the basic mechanisms through which the circadian clock regulates organismal metabolism. We anticipate that a better understanding of clock processes will lead to innovative therapeutics for a spectrum of diseases including diabetes, obesity, autoimmunity and cancer. 

Studies of Clock Function in Beta Cell Failure and Metabolic Disease

Glucose homeostasis is a dynamic process subject to rhythmic variation throughout the day and night. Impaired glucose regulation leads to metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, disorders that are also associated with sleep-wake disruption, although the molecular underpinnings of circadian glucose regulation have been unknown. Work from our laboratory first demonstrated an essential role of the intrinsic pancreatic clock in insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus and present efforts focus on dissecting the genomic and cell biologic link between clock function and beta cell failure (Nature, 2010, 2013). 

Studies of Clock Regulation of Metabolic Epigenetics

In 2009 we first reported discovery that the circadian system plays a central role in metabolism through regulation of NAD+ biosynthesis (Science, 2009). NAD+ is a precursor of NADP+ and is required for macromolecule biosynthesis, in addition to functioning as an oxidoreductase carrier.  NAD+ is also a required cofactor for the class III histone deacetylases (silencer of information regulators, SIRTs), nutrient-responsive epigenetic regulators  Biochemical analyses show that SIRT1 deacetylates substrate proteins generating O-acetyl-ADP-ribose and nicotinamide, which is then regenerated to NAD+ by the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT). We originally showed that CLOCK/BMAL1 directly control the transcription of Nampt and in turn control the activity of SIRT1—identifying a feedback loop composed of CLOCK/BMAL1-NAMPT/SIRT1. More recently, we have identified a role for the clock-NAD+ pathway in mitochondrial respiration (Science, 2013), and our present efforts include the analysis of clock-NAD+ regulation of cellular redox and epigenetic regulation, with the ultimate aim of applying such knowledge to studies of cell growth and stress response.

For more information, please see Dr. Bass' faculty profile or lab website.

Publications

See Dr. Bass' publications in PubMed.

Contact Info

Dr. Bass

 Serdar Bulun Lab

Estrogen metabolism in breast cancer, endometriosis and uterine fibroids.

Research Description

The laboratory research of Serdar E. Bulun, MD, focuses on studying estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism, in particular aromatase expression, in hormone-dependent human diseases such as breast cancer, endometriosis and uterine fibroids.

A team of investigators works on understanding the epithelial-stromal interactions and aromatase overexpression in breast cancer tissue. Because aromatase inhibitors treat breast tumors primarily via suppressing intratumoral estrogen biosynthesis, these efforts are important for discovering new targets of treatment.

Another team studies endometriosis. Basic data from this laboratory led to the introduction of aromatase inhibitors into endometriosis treatment. Human tissues and a primate model are used to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of endometriosis.

Regulation of aromatase expression is also studied in uterine fibroids, benign tumors that are dependent on estrogen for growth, by a third team. 

A fourth team is investigating the link between progesterone action and estrogen inactivation in normal endometrium and endometriosis.

Lastly, a fifth team has identified novel mutations that cause familial excessive estrogen formation syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by short stature, gynecomastia and hypogonadism in males and early breast development and irregular menses in females. In this syndrome, heterozygous inversions in chromosome 15q21, which cause the coding region of the aromatase gene to lie adjacent to constitutively active cryptic promoters that normally transcribe other genes, result in estrogen excess owing to the overexpression of aromatase in many tissues.

For more information, please see Dr. Bulun's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Bulun's publications in PubMed.

Contact

Dr. Bulun

 Debabrata Chakravarti Lab

Epigenome and 3D chromatin organization dysregulations define human cancers and reproductive diseases

Research Description

Dr. Chakravarti’s research is focused on understanding epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of human tumorigenesis.  One of his research projects is focused on understanding the mechanisms that drive the development of uterine fibroids and endometriosis that affect an alarmingly high number of all women.  In another project, Dr. Chakravarti’s research team investigates molecular underpinning of contribution of transcription factors, cofactors and epigenomic and 3D genome reorganization regulation of prostate Cancer that affects a large number of men worldwide.  In a third project the laboratory determines the role of protein cofactors in regulation of cell cycle genes. Thus, our work interfaces both fundamental and translational research on diseases that affect humankind.  It is our hope that when combined with results from others, our research will contribute to the development of future therapeutics.  Dr. Chakravarti gratefully acknowledges continuous funding support from the NIH and key roles of his lab members and collaborators in the overall success of the Chakravarti Laboratory.

Dr. Chakravarti also enjoys teaching.  He has continuously taught both medical and graduate students.  He serves on numerous Ph.D thesis committees.  He has trained a large number of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows some of whom are now independent investigators at this and other institutions.

For more information, please see, visit the Dr. Chakravarti's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Chakravarti's publications in PubMed.
Associate Editor: Endocrinology 2017-present; Editorial Board:  Molecular Endocrinology 2011- present, Mol. Cell. Biol. 2014-present
The Editor of a Book volume on “Regulatory Mechanisms in Transcriptional Signaling” in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science (Vol 87), published in Aug 2009, Academic Press, Chakravarti, D. Editor

Contact Us

Dr. Chakravarti

312-503-1641

 Shi-Yuan Cheng Lab

Cancer stem cell biology, cellular signaling and therapy responses in human brain tumors, in particular, glioblastoma (GBM)

Research Description

      Integrated genomic analysis by TCGA revealed tat GBMs can be classified into four clinically relevant subtypes, proneural (PN), neural, mesenchymal (Mes) and classical GBMs with each characterized by distinct gene expression signatures and genetic alterations. We reported that PN and Mes glioma stem cells (GSCs) subtypes also have distinct dysregulated signaling pathways. Our current research focuses on novel mechanisms/cellular signaling of GSC biology, tumorigenesis, progression, invasion/metastasis, angiogenesis and therapy responses of GSCs and GBMs.

1. MicroRNAs (miRs) and non-coding RNAs in GSCs and GBMs – miRs and other small non-coding RNAs act as transcription repressors or inducers of gene expression or functional modulators in all multicellular organisms.  Dysregulated miRs/noncoding RNAs plays critical roles in cancer initiation, progression and responses to therapy. We study the mechanisms by which deregulated expression of miRs influence GBM malignant phenotypes through interaction with signaling pathways, that in turn, influence proneural (PN)- and mesenchymal (Mes)-associated gene expression in GSCs and GBM phenotypes. We study the molecular consequences and explore clinical applications of modulating miRs and signaling pathways in GBMs.  We are establishing profiles of non-coding RNAs in these GSCs and study mechanisms and biological influences of these non-coding RNAs in regulating GSC biology and GBM phenotypes. In addition, we explore novel therapeutic approaches of delivery of tumor suppressive miRs into GSC brain xenografts in animals.

2.  Autophagy in GBMs. (Macro)autophagy is an evolutionally conserved dynamic process whereby cells catabolize damaged proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner. Autophagy principally serves as an adaptive role to protect cells and tissues, including those associated with cancer. Autophagy in response to multiple stresses including therapeutic treatments such as radiation and chemotherapies provides a mechanism for tumor cell to survive and acquire resistance to therapies. Tumors can use autophagy to support and sustain their proliferation, survival, metabolism, invasiveness, metastasis and resistance to therapy. We study mechanisms by which phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination of autophagy proteins regulate GSC and GBM phenotypes and autophagic response, which, in turn contributes to tumor cell survival, growth and resistance to therapy. We investigate whether disruption of these post-translational processes on autophagy proteins inhibits autophagy and enhances the efficacy of combination therapies for GBMs. We examine whether cross-talks between miRs, autophagy and oncogenic signaling pathways regulate GSC stemness and phenotypes.

3. Heterogeneity, epigenetic regulation, DNA damage and metabolic pathways in GSCs and GBMs. Intratumoral heterogeneity is a characteristic of GBMs and most of cancers. Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity arise among GBM cells within the same tumor as a consequence of genetic change, environmental differences and reversible changes in cell properties. Subtype mosaicism within the same tumor and spontaneous conversion of human PN to Mes tumors have been observed in clinical GBMs. We explore an emerging epigenetic marker with distinct functions such as DNA methylation together with genetic mapping of these markers to assess their contributions to GBM heterogeneity. In addition, compared with PN GSCs, DNA damage and glycolytic pathways are aberrant active in Mes GSCs. We investigate the mechanisms by which these pathways regulate GSC and GBM phenotypes and responses to therapies.

4. Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs) signaling, small Rho GTPase regulators in GBM and GSCs: Small Rho GTPases such as Rac1 and Cdc42 modulate cancer cell migration, invasion, growth and survival. Recently, we described mechanisms by which EGFR and its mutant EGFRvIII and PDGFR alpha promote glioma growth and invasion by distinct mechanisms involving phosphorylation of Dock180, a Rac-specific guanidine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and DCBLD2, an orphan membrane receptor. We are currently investigating involvement of other modulators/GEFs and other Rho GTPases in modulating GSC and GBM phenotypes and responses to therapy.

For more information, please see Dr. Cheng's faculty profile and lab website.

Publications

View Dr. Cheng's complete list of publications in PubMed.

Contact Us

Shi-Yuan Cheng, PhD at 312-503-5314

Visit us on campus in the Lurie Building, Room 6-119, 303 E Superior Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611.

 

 Jaehyuk Choi Lab

Genetic basis of inherited and acquired immunological disorders and skin cancer.

Research Description

We employ cutting-edge genomics approaches to identify the genetic basis of inherited and acquired immunological disorders and skin cancer.

As an example, we have recently identified the genes and mutations underlying cutaneous T cell lymphoma, an incurable non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skin-homing T cells. The genes are components of the DNA damage, chromatin modifying, NF-kB and the T cell receptor signaling pathways. We are currently employing a comprehensive approach using human tissues and animal models to investigate the functions of these genes. We are confident these studies will allow us to elucidate the pathophysiology of this cancer and lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

Work in the lab is funded by National Cancer Institute, Dermatology Foundation, American Skin Association and American Cancer Society. For further information, please also see Dr. Choi's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Choi's publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Choi.

 Elizabeth Eklund Lab

The Eklund lab investigates myeloid leukemia and approaches to chemotherapy resistant disease.

Dr. Eklund’s laboratory studies are focused on understanding the molecular events that lead to development of myeloid leukemias (acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia) and to the evolution of drug resistance in these diseases.  The goal is to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets that would delay or prevent drug resistance and relapse in AML and CML.  In related projects, the laboratory is investigating Fanconi Anemia, a genetic disease with defective DNA repair.  Patients with Fanconi Anemia frequently develop leukemia and provide a model for understanding the role of DNA repair in leukemogenesis.

Publications

View lab publications via PubMed.

For more information, visit the faculty profile page of Elizabeth Eklund, MD.

Contact Us

Contact Dr. Eklund at 312-503-3208 or the Eklund Lab at 312-503-3208.

Lab Staff

Ling Bei, MD
Research Associate
312-503-3206

Elizabeth Hjort
Graduate Student
312-503-4642

Liping Hu, PhD
Post Doctoral Fellow
312-503-4642

Weigi Huang, MD
Research Assistant Professor
312-503-3206

Chirag Shah, PhD
Research Associate
312-503-4642

Hao Wang, PhD
Research Assistant Professor
312-503-3204

 Jaime García-Añoveros Lab

Development, function, dysfunction and degeneration of sensory receptor cells and neurons

Research Description

We investigate sensory organs and particularly the uniquely specialized cells that detect external signals (the sensory receptor cells) and communicate this information to the brain (the primary sensory neurons). Our approach is to identify and characterize novel genes involved in the formation (during development or regeneration), function (as sensory transducers), dysfunction and death (causing diseases like deafness or neuropathic pain) of these cells. The genes we have studied so far encode ion channels (of the Deg/ENaC and TRP families) and transcriptional regulators (zinc-finger proteins; these studied in collaboration with Anne Duggan). We are interested in all forms of sensation but, as of now, have primarily explored the somatic (touch and pain), auditory and nasal sensory organs.

Sensory Neuron Development: We found Insm1, a zinc-finger gene regulator that determines the number of olfactory receptor neurons. Insm1 is expressed in the olfactory epithelium, as it is everywhere else in the developing nervous system, in late (but not early) progenitors and nascent (but not mature) neurons. It functions by promoting the transition of neuroepithelial progenitors from apical, proliferative and uncommitted (i.e., neural stem cells) to basal, terminally dividing and neuron-producing (Duggan et al., 2008; Rosenbaum, Duggan & García-Añoveros 2011). We are currently determining the role of Insm1 in other sensory organs, as well as elucidating the role of other novel neurodevelopmental genes.

Sensory Transduction: We pioneered a molecular model of how certain neurons can detect touch using DEG/ENaC channels and structural components of the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton (García-Añoveros et al., 1995; 1996), characterized a major pain transduction channel (TRPA1; Nagata et al., 2005), and continue searching for sensory transducers, particularly ion channels.

Sensory Neuron Degeneration: We found a form of cell death caused by mutations on ion channels that leave them open, generating lethal currents (García-Añoveros et al., 1998). In this way, we found how dominant mutations in the Mcoln3 (Trpml3) gene cause loss of mechanosensory cells of the inner ear and deafness (Nagata et al., 2008; Castiglioni et al., 2011). We continue exploring he role of TRPML3 and other ion channel in inner ear function and disease.

For more information, view the faculty profile of Jaime García-Añoveros, PhD or visit the Añoveros & Duggan lab site.

Publications

See Dr. García-Añoveros' publications on PubMed.

Staff Listing

Graduate Students

Chuan Foo
Teerawat Wiwatpanit

Post-doctoral Fellows

Research Assistant Professor

Technical Staff

Contact Info

Dr. García-Añoveros

Lab Phone: 312-503-4246
Office Phone: 312-503-4245

 Thomas Hope Lab

Studying the posttranscriptional regulation of intronless viral messages

Research Description

We study the posttranscriptional regulation of intronless viral messages. Intronless messages must be efficiently processed in the absence of splicing. Therefore, intronless messages must uncouple RNA processing and export from the splicing process making a simpler model system. We are currently focused on the posttranscriptional regulatory element (PRE) of the Hepadnaviruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE). Our goal is to understand the novel mechanism of the stimulation of heterologous gene expression by the WPRE. Understanding WPRE function will allow the development of even more efficient gene expression for a variety of applications from gene therapy to large scale protein production.

Although much is known about the molecular biology of HIV, little is known about the details of interactions between the virus and cellular components such as the cytoskeleton. To gain insights into these processes we are combining the disciplines of virology and cell biology to develop the field of cellular virology. We are especially excited by new methods we have developed – such as time-lapse analysis and fluorescent tagging – that allow for HIV to be visualized in living cells.

For lab information and more, see Dr. Hope's faculty profile and lab website.

Publications

See Dr. Hope's publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Hope at 312-503-1360.

Lab Staff

Research Faculty

Ann Carias, Gianguido Cianci, Katarina Kotnik Halavaty, Joao Mamede, Danijela Maric

Postdoctoral Fellows

Muhammad Shoaib Arif, Koree Wee Ahn, Yanille Scott, Tahmina Sultana, Roslyn Taylor, Yanique Thomas

Lab Manager

Michael McRaven

Graduate Student

Faisal Nuhu

Technical Staff

Edward Allen, Meegan Anderson, Lisette Corbin, Flora Engelmann, Joseph Griffin, Megan Halkett, Jared Schooley, Divya Thakkar, Sixia Xiao

Program Staff

Debra Walker

Temporary Staff

Bryan Luna, Ewa Tfaily

 Lifang Hou Lab

Environmental, genetic and epigenetic risk factors for disease

Research Description

Dr. Hou’s research interest lies in integrating traditional epidemiologic methods with the ever-advancing molecular techniques in multi-disciplinary research focusing on identifying key molecular markers and understanding their potential impact on disease etiology, detection and prevention.

Dr. Hou’s major research efforts to date have focused on two areas: 1) identification of risk factors that may cause chronic diseases; and 2) identification of biomarkers that serve as indicators of an individual’s past exposure to disease risk factors and/or predict future disease risks and/or prognosis. The environmental/lifestyle risk factors that Dr. Hou has studied include air pollution, pesticides, overweight, physical inactivity and reproductive factors in relation to chronic diseases. The biomarkers that Dr. Hou has investigated include genetic factors (i.e., polymorphisms, telomere length shortening, mitochondria DNA copy number variations) and epigenetic factors (i.e., DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA profiling). Her over-arching research goal is to understand the biological mechanisms linking environmental risk factors with subclinical or clinical disease development to ultimately lead to development of effective strategies for prevention of chronic diseases.

In addition to being a PI of several NIH funded grants, Dr. Hou is the co-director and Co-PI of the Northwestern Consortium for Early Phase Cancer Prevention Trials of the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) Consortia, National Cancer Institute.

For more information visit the faculty profile of Lifang Hou, MD, PhD.

Publications

See Dr. Hou's publications in PubMed.

Contact

Dr. Hou

 Zhe Ji Lab

Dissecting the regulation of gene transcription and RNA translation underlying oncogenic processes.

Research Description

Cancer happens through accumulated genetic mutations and epigenetic alternation in normal cells. With the advances of genomic technologies, we now can precisely characterize the genome-wide alternations of gene expression underlying oncogenic processes in a cost-effective and unbiased manner. My lab will use the combined experimental genomic technologies and computational modeling to examine the regulation of gene transcription and RNA translation during steps of oncogenesis. We aim at revealing novel cancer therapeutic targets and strategies for precision medicine and immunotherapy.

Current Projects

Currently, we are working on the following projects.

  • Characterizing the transcriptional regulatory circuits mediating inflammation in the cancer microenvironment.
  • Examining the genome-wide regulation of RNA translation in cancers.
  • Defining the functional roles of non-canonical translation in lncRNAs, pseudogenes and 5’UTRs in cancers.

For lab information and more, see Dr. Ji's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Ji's publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Ji at 312-503-2187.

Lab Staff

Postdoctoral Fellows

Qianru Li, Haiwang Yang

Graduate Students

Emily Stroup, Sheng Wang

 Geoff Kansas Lab

T helper cell differentiation and trafficking.

Research Description

My laboratory is interested in signaling mechanisms which control T helper cell differentiation and traffic. We are currently focused on two areas: functions of p38 MAP kinases (MAPK) and the role of a transcription factor KLF2 in these processes. Toward this end, we have produced novel mouse models which will allow us to test the role of the different isoforms of p38 (of which there are 4) in T helper differentiation and expression of key leukocyte adhesion molecules; and to determine the role of KLF2 downregulation in T helper biology generally.

For lab information and more, see Dr. Kansas's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Kansas's publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Kansas at 312-908-3237 or the lab at 312-908-3752.

Lab Staff

Technical Staff

Caroline Patel

 Jennifer Kearney Lab

Investigating the genetic basis of epilepsy

Research Description

My research program is focused on studying the genetic basis of epilepsy, a common neurological disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. Epilepsy is thought to have a genetic basis in approximately two-thirds of patients, including a small fraction caused by single gene mutations. Many genes responsible for rare, monogenic epilepsy have been identified. The genes identified are components of neuronal signaling, including voltage-gated ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, ion-channel associated proteins and synaptic proteins. We use mouse models with mutations in ion channel genes to understand the underlying molecular basis of epilepsy and to identify modifier genes that influence phenotype severity by modifying disease risk. Identifying genes that influence epilepsy risk improves our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and suggests novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

For lab information and more, see Dr. Kearney's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Kearney's publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Kearney at 312-503-4894.

Lab Staff

Research Faculty

Nicole Hawkins

Postdoctoral Fellow

Thuy Vien

Graduate Students

Erin Baker, Letonia Copeland-Hardin, Dennis Echevarria, Seok Kyu Kang

Technical Staff

Conor Dixon

 Dimitri Krainc Lab

Understanding the mechanisms of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders that affect children and adults.

Research Description

The overarching goal of my laboratory is to study rare diseases such Huntington’s and genetic forms of Parkinson’s disease, as a window to understanding neurodegeneration across the lifespan. More recently, we have focused on rare lysosomal diseases such as Gaucher’s in order to identify specific targets and mechanisms that contribute to neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s and related synucleinopathies. It is expected that such defined targets will facilitate mechanism-based development of targeted therapies for children with neuronopathis Gaucher’s disease as well as adult-onset synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. To validate and study these targets and novel therapies in human neurons, we have utilized induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) generated by reprogramming of patient-specific skin fibroblasts. These iPS cells are differentiated into specific neuronal subtypes in order to characterize the contribution of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors to disease mechanisms and to test novel therapeutic approaches.

For more information see the faculty profile of Dimitri Krainc or visit the Krainc Lab website.

Recent Publications

View Dr. Krainc's full list of publications in PubMed.

Contact information

Dimitri Krainc, MD, PhD
Ward Professor and Chairman
312-503-3936

 Laimonis Laimins Lab

Molecular biology of human papillomaviruses (HPV) and their association with cervical cancer

Research Description

Our efforts are divided into two main categories:

  • An examination of how the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 contribute to the development of malignancy
  • Studies on the mechanisms controlling the viral life cycle in differentiating epithelia

More than 100 distinct types of human papillomavirus have been identified and approximately one-third specifically target squamous epithelial cells in the genital tract. Of these genital papillomaviruses, a subset including types 16,18 and 31 have been shown to be the etiological agents of most cervical cancers.

One of our goals is to understand why infection by specific HPV types contributes to the development of malignancy. For these studies we have examined the interaction of the oncoproteins E6 and E7 with cellular proteins. In particular, E6 binds the p53 protein and facilitates its degradation by a ubiquitin-mediated pathway. It also activates telomerase as well as associates with PDZ-domain containing proteins. The interactions of the E6 and E7 proteins with these cellular proteins are being examined at both the biochemical and genetic level.

In examining the papillomavirus life cycle, we have used organotypic tissue culture systems to faithfully reproduce the differentiation program of epithelial cells in the laboratory. Using this system, the viral life cycle has been duplicated.  We are studying the mechanisms that regulate viral DNA replication, cell entry, immune evasion and gene expression. These studies should provide insight into viral pathogenesis as well as the mechanisms regulating epithelial differentiation.

For lab information and more, see Dr. Laimins' faculty profile and lab website.

Publications

See Dr. Laimins' publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Laimins at 312-503-0648 or the lab at 312-503-0650.

Lab Staff

Postdoctoral Fellows

Ekaterina Albert, Elona Gusho, Takeyuki Kono, Sreedhar Pujari

Technical Staff

Archit Ghosh, Paul Hoover, Paul Kaminski, Brian Studnicka

 William Lowe Lab

Genetic determinants of maternal metabolism and fetal growth

Research Description

A major interest of the Lowe laboratory is genetic determinants of maternal metabolism during pregnancy and the interaction between the intrauterine environment and genetics in determining size at birth.  This interest is being addressed using DNA and phenotype information from ~16,000 mothers and their babies who participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study.  A genome wide association study using DNA from mothers and babies from four different ancestry groups has been performed, with several different loci demonstrating genome-wide significant association with maternal and fetal traits.  Replication studies have confirmed the identified associations.  Studies are now underway now to identify the causal variants and their functional impact.  In related studies performed with investigators at Duke, targeted and untargeted metabolomic studies are underway to determine whether metabolic signatures characteristic of maternal obesity and/or hyperglycemia can be identified in mothers and babies. Integration of metabolomic and genomic data is also planned to more fully characterize maternal metabolism during pregnancy and its interaction with fetal growth.  Finally, a HAPO Follow-Up Study has been initiated in which a subset of the HAPO mothers and babies (now 8-12 years of age) will be recruited to examine the hypothesis that maternal glucose levels during pregnancy are positively correlated with metabolic measures in childhood, including adiposity, lipidemia, glycemia and blood pressure.

For further information visit Dr. Lowe's faculty profile page

Publications

View Dr. Lowe's publications at PubMed

Contact

Email Dr. Lowe

Phone 312-503-2539

 Yong-Chao Ma Lab

Regulation of Motor Neuron and Dopaminergic Neuron Function in Development and Disease

Postdoctoral fellow jobs and graduate student rotation projects are available.

Research Description

Spinal Motor Neurons and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

SMA is characterized by the selective degeneration of spinal motor neurons. As the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, SMA affects one in every eight thousand live births. Our group is interested in studying mechanism regulating motor neuron development and function, as well as why motor neurons specifically degenerate in SMA. To address these questions, we use a combination of genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches and utilize genetically modified mice, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells reprogrammed from fibroblasts and zebrafish as model systems. We focus on the regulation of mitochondrial functions in SMA pathogenesis. Based on our findings, we hope to develop new therapeutic strategies for treating SMA.

 
Dopaminergic Neurons and Parkinson's Disease

Dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral midbrain control movement, emotional behavior and reward mechanisms. Dysfunction of these neurons is implicated in Parkinson’s disease, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Our group is interested in the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulating dopaminergic neuron functions in disease and aging conditions. We are particularly interested in how aging and mitochondrial oxidative stress contribute to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease through transcriptional and epigenetic regulations. We use mouse models, cultured neurons and iPS cells for these studies.

For more information visit Dr. Ma's faculty profile and Dr. Ma's lab website within the Children's Hospital Research Center.

Publications

View Dr. Ma's publications at PubMed

Contact

Email Dr. Ma

Phone 773-755-6339

Lab Staff

Nimrod Miller, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow

Han Shi, Graduate Student

Brittany Edens, Graduate Student

Kevin Park, Graduate Student

Monica Yang, Undergraduate Student

Aaron Zelikovich, Undergraduate Student

 Aline Martin Lab

The Martin Lab investigates the role of the skeleton in the endocrine regulation of mineral metabolism and the cardiovascular complications of mineral and bone diseases.

Our research program focuses on the contribution of the skeleton to the mineral balance in the body.  Bone produces a hormone, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-23, that participates in this balance.  However in mineral metabolism disorders, such as in chronic kidney disease, the massive production of FGF23 is associated with negative outcomes and mortality.  By understanding the mechanisms that control the production of FGF23, our goal is to develop new therapeutic strategies and improve outcomes in mineral metabolism disorders.  To this goal, we perform basic and translational research using a combination of genetics, molecular biology, proteomics, histology and advanced imaging techniques. 

A major focus of the lab is to investigate the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of FGF23 within the bone cells.  In particular, we study the specific role of a known regulator of FGF23, Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1), on these regulations and on osteocyte biology in the context of diseases associated with FGF23 excess (chronic kidney disease, hypophosphatemic rickets …).  A second focus is to investigate the mechanisms involved in negative outcomes associated with FGF23 excess, including bone mineralization defects, cardiac hypertrophy and cognitive defects.  Our team works in collaboration with the Center for Translational Metabolism and Health and the Division of Cardiology at Northwestern, and with multiple additional collaborators and partnerships around the world.

The Martin Lab is sponsored by the National Institute of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and by the Northwestern Women’s Health Research Institute.

Publications

For more information view Dr. Martin's Faculty Profile or  view publications by PubMed

Contact Us

Contact Dr. Martin at 312-503-4160 or the Martin Lab at 312-503-4805, or by email.

 Marc Mendillo Lab

Cellular stress response systems in malignancies

Research Description

The cellular stress response systems guard the proteome from diverse endogenous and environmental insults to maintain the fitness of the organism. Ironically, this pro-survival system can act to the detriment of the host to enable tumor cells accommodate to the myriad stresses associated with malignancy. Our long-term goals are to identify and characterize the systems that promote protein homeostasis, understand how these systems are co-opted and perturbed in malignancy, and ultimately identify means to manipulate them for therapeutic benefit. To accomplish these goals our group bridges biochemical, genetic and chemical biology approaches with systematic high-throughput and genomic methods.

For lab information, publications and more, see Dr. Mendillo’s faculty profile.

Publications

View Dr. Mendillo's publications at PubMed

Contact

Email Dr. Mendillo

Phone 312-503-5685

 Puneet Opal Lab

Seeking to understand the cellular basis of neurodegeneration.

Research Description

The long-term goal of my laboratory is to understand the cellular basis of neurodegeneration.  We are testing the idea that neurodegeneration results from derangements in relatively few but strategic sub-cellular pathways. By identifying critical components of these pathways one could begin to not only understand the biology of neurodegeneration, but also embark on the design of novel therapeutic agents.

We are currently studying the autosomal dominant disorder Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 (SCA1), a relentless disease that affects cerebellar Purkinje cells and brainstem neurons.  This disorder is caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the involved disease protein and is thus similar to a growing number of disorders, including Huntington disease, that share this mutational mechanism.  Patients with SCA1 begin to display cerebellar signs characterized by motor incoordination or ataxia in early to mid adulthood. Unfortunately there is no treatment for this disease and patients eventually succumb from the complications of brainstem dysfunction.

Current Projects

  1. Testing the transcriptional hypothesis in SCA1 pathogenesis: 

    One of the earliest features of this disease is change in the gene expression signature within neurons affected in this disease.  We are elucidating the pattern of gene expression changes in the vulnerable Purkinje cell population and identifying the contribution of these alterations to pathology.

  2. Testing the role of the vascular and angiogenic factor VEGF in SCA1 pathogenesis. 

    One of the genes that we have already found to be down-regulated is the neurotrophic and angiogenic factor VEGF.  Importantly, we have discovered that genetic or pharmacologic replenishment of VEGF mitigates SCA1 pathogenesis.  These results suggest a novel therapeutic strategy for this incurable disease and a possible cross-talk between the degenerating cerebellum and its microvasculature.  We are pursuing mechanistic experiments to learn how low VEGF mediates SCA1 pathology.  In addition, we are working actively towards testing the potential for VEGF as a therapy in human ataxic disorders.

  3. Testing the role of ataxin-1 misfolding and clearance in disease pathogenesis.

    Several studies suggest that ataxin-1 accumulates in neurons because of its inability to be cleared by the protein-misfolding chaperone pathway.  We are testing different strategies to promote ataxin-1 clearance.

In addition to spinocerebellar ataxia, we are also studying genetic parkinsonian and dystonic syndromes.

For more information see the faculty profile of Puneet Opal, MD, PhD or visit the Opal Lab website.

Publications

View Dr. Opal's full list of publications at PubMed

Contact

Puneet Opal, MD, PhD, at 312-503-4699

Lab Staff

Research Associates

Jessica Huang

Postdoctoral Fellows

Edamakanti Chandrakanth Reddy (Chandu), PhD
Dilyan Dryanovski, PhD
Yuan-shih (Jennifer) Hu, PhD
Eitan Israeli, PhD

Graduate Students

Natalie Frederick
Kevin Murnan

Technical Staff

Vicky Hwang

Undergraduate Student

Sean Bald
In-Won Chang

 Pembe Hande Ozdinler Lab

Understanding the cortical component of motor neuron circuitry degeneration in ALS and other related disorders.

The Les Turner ALS Laboratory II at Northwestern

Research Description

We are interested in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for selective neuronal vulnerability and degeneration in motor neuron diseases. Our laboratory especially focuses on the corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) which are unique in their ability to collect, integrate, translate and transmit cerebral cortex's input toward spinal cord targets. Their degeneration leads to numerous motor neuron diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegia and primary lateral sclerosis.

Investigation of CSMN require their visualization and cellular analysis. We therefore, generated reporter lines in which upper motor neurons are intrinsically labeled with eGFP expression. We also characterized progressive CSMN degeneration in various mouse models of motor neuron diseases and continue to generate reporter lines of disease models, in which the upper motor neurons express eGFP.

The overall goal in our investigation, is to develop effective treatment strategies for ALS and other related motor neuron diseases. We appreciate the complexity of the disease and try to focus the problem from three different angles. In one set of studies, we try to reveal the intrinsic factors that could contribute to CSMN vulnerability by investigating the expression profile of more than 40,000 genes and their splice variations at different stages of the disease. In another set of studies, we try to understand the role of non-neuronal cells on motor neuron vulnerability and degeneration, using a triple transgenic mouse model, in which the cells that initiate innate immunity are genetically labeled with fluorescence in an ALS mouse model. These studies will not only reveal the genes that show alternative splice variations, but also inform us on the canonical pathway and networks that are altered with respect to disease initiation and progression.

Even though the above mentioned studies, which use pure populations of neurons and cells isolated by FACS mediated approaches, will reveal the potential mechanisms that are important for CSMN vulnerability, it is important to develop therapeutic interventions. One of the approach we develop is the AAV-mediated gene delivery directly into the CSMN via retrograde transduction. Currently, we are trying to improve CSMN transduction upon direct cortex injection.

Identification of compounds that support CSMN survival is an important component of pre-clinical testing. We develop both in vitro and in vivo compound screening and verification platforms that inform us on the efficiency of compounds for the improvement of CSMN survival.

In summary, we generate new tools and reagents to study the biology of CSMN and to investigate both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to their vulnerability and progressive degeneration. We develop compound screening and verification platforms to test their potency on CSMN and develop AAV-mediated gene delivery approaches. Our research will help understand the cellular basis of CSMN degeneration and will help develop novel therapeutic approaches.

For more information see the faculty profile of Pembe Hande Ozdinler, PhD or the Ozdinler Lab website.

Publications

View Dr. Ozdinler's full list of publications at PubMed

Contact

Hande Ozdinler, PhD at 312-503-2774

 Arthur Prindle Lab

Synthetic biology in microbial communities

Research Description

The Prindle lab is interested in understanding how molecular and cellular interactions give rise to collective behaviors in microbial communities. While bacteria are single celled organisms, we now understand that most bacteria on our planet reside in the context of structured multicellular communities known as biofilms. However, most bacterial research is still performed on domesticated lab strains in well-mixed conditions. We simply do not know enough about the biology and behavior of the most pervasive life form on our planet. It is our goal to discover and understand these behaviors so that we may apply our understanding to engineer biomolecular systems as solutions to challenging biomedical problems, such as antibiotic resistance. To do this, we also work on developing technologies that can characterize collective metabolic and electrochemical dynamics that emerge in the context of biofilms.

For more information, see Dr. Prindle's lab website.

Publications

See Dr. Prindle’s publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Prindle

 Vijay P. Sarthy Lab

Gene regulation, development and functional organization of the vertebrate retina

Research Description

The pattern of gene expression in eukaryotic cells is strongly influenced by interactions with neighboring cells. When cell-cell interactions are perturbed, changes in cellular gene activity are often observed. In the vertebrate retina, inherited or acquired rod and cone degeneration results in disruption of normal interactions between photoreceptors and their support cells, the Müller cells. Under these conditions many genes such as the glial intermediate filament protein (GFAP) gene, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene are upregulated in neighboring Müller cells.

We use techniques such as single cell RT-PCR and differential display to study changes in gene expression patterns in Müller cells. Major goals of our current research are to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for transcriptional activation and to determine the extracellular inductive signal and the signal transduction pathways involved. Our recent cell transfection studies and experiments with GFAP-lacZ transgenic mice suggest that GFAP gene activation in Müller cells is regulated by a cell type-specific, inducible enhancer and that GFAP gene is activated through the JAK-STAT pathway. The work on gene regulation is crucial for development of strategies for using Müller cell-specific promoters to test the biological effects of growth factors and cytokines in animals models of retinal degeneration and more importantly for designing cell type-specific vectors for targeted delivery in gene therapy.

A second project is concerned with molecular cloning, regulation and function of neurotransmitter transporters—a family of membrane proteins that are involved in the uptake of neurotransmitters. We are particularly interested in the role of taurine and glutamate transporters in retinal ischemia and glutamate neurotoxicity. We have already cloned and characterized GABA, taurine and glutamate transporters from retina. We have also localized the transporters to specific retinal cell types and shown that phosphorylation may play a key role in regulating transporter function.

For more information visit Dr. Sarthy's faculty profile page.

Publications

View Dr. Sarthy's publications at PubMed

Contact

Email Dr. Sarthy

Phone 312- 503-3031

 Richard Scarpulla Lab

Looking to further define the molecular interactions and physiological functions of transcriptional activators and co-activators involved in the nuclear control of the respiratory apparatus

Research Description

Our long-term objectives are to further define the molecular interactions and physiological functions of transcriptional activators and co-activators involved in the nuclear control of the respiratory apparatus. Current work in the lab combines molecular and biochemical approaches with the development of cellular and transgenic models to understand in vivo regulatory pathways and mechanisms.

For lab information see Dr. Scarpulla's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Scarpulla's publications on PubMed

Contact

Contact Dr. Scarpulla at 312-503-2946.

 Hank Seifert Lab

Bacterial pathogenesis, DNA recombination mechanisms, epithelial cell adherence

Research Description

Our laboratory studies the pathogenesis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. This gram-negative bacterium is an obligate human pathogen that has existed within human populations throughout recorded history. We are using a variety of molecular biological, genetic, cell biological and biochemical techniques to investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling gonococcal infection, define mechanisms and pathways of DNA recombination, replication and repair in this human specific pathogen, study the interactions between gonococci and human cells, tissues and the innate immune system and determine how the pilus functions to help mediate genetic transfer and pathogenesis. Our goal is to discover new mechanisms important for the continued existence of this microbe in the human population to further our understanding of how infectious agents have evolved to specifically infect humans.

For lab information and more, see Dr. Seifert's faculty profile.

Publications

See Dr. Seifert's publications on PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Seifert at 312-503-9788 or the lab at 312-503-9786.

Lab Staff

Research Faculty

Elizabeth Stohl 

Postdoctoral Fellows

Linda I-Lin Hu, Jayaram Narayana, Ella Rotman

Graduate Students

Wendy Geslewitz

Technical Staff

Shaohui Yin 

 Ali Shilatifard Lab

Studying molecular machinery for histone modifications in yeast, Drosophila and human cells

Research Description

Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in alterations of gene expression are a major cause of hematological malignancies. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of rearrangement-based leukemia and to provide insights into how translocations affect cellular division by altering gene expression. Using mammalian model systems such as tissue culture and mouse genetics, we plan to explore the regulation of gene expression via the MLL gene and its translocation partners found in human leukemia. We are currently defining the molecular composition of the MLL complexes and how translocations alter its biochemical function and integrity, resulting in leukemic pathogenesis. We are also planning to define the mechanism of the targeting of the MLL complex and its histone methyltransferase activity to chromatin to determine its normal cellular functions and its mistargeting and dysregulation in leukemogenesis.

One fusion partner of MLL in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the ELL protein. We show that human ELL functions as a transcription elongation factor. We have identified the Drosophila homolog of ELL and demonstrate it to be essential for development.  Drosophila ELL associates with elongating RNA polymerase II in vivo on chromosomes and is a regulator of the Notch signaling pathway.  This has suggested to us that human ELL might also participate in the same process.

For lab information and more, see Dr. Shilatifard's faculty profile or visit the Shilatifard Laboratory site.

Publications

View Dr. Shilatifard's publications on PubMed.

Contact

Email Dr. Shilatifard

Phone 312-503-5223

 Benjamin Singer Lab

Exploring respiratory failure

Research Description

The Singer Lab focuses on determinants of resolution and repair of acute lung inflammation and injury. Our ultimate goal is to unravel the factors controlling resolution and repair and exploit those factors as therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)—a devastating disorder responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of people each year.

For more information, visit the Benjamin Singer Lab site or his faculty profile page.

View Dr. Singer's publications on PubMed.

Contact Us

Email Dr. Singer or contact at 312-908-8163.

 Beatriz Sosa-Pineda Lab

The Sosa-Pineda lab studies studies the regulation of acinar cell development and plasticity in the pancreas, hepatic cell fate, and liver zonation. We also investigate mechanisms that promote pancreas metastasis.

Research Description

Using genetically modified mouse models and cutting-edge technologies, we investigate how the complex architecture of the mammalian pancreas and liver is established during development. We also investigate how acute or chronic injury affect liver zonation and exocrine pancreas homeostasis, and the role of chromosomal instability in pancreatic tumor formation and metastasis.

 

For more information, visit the faculty profile of Beatriz Sosa-Pineda, PhD or the Sosa-Pineda lab web site.

Publications

View Dr. Sosa-Pineda's publications at PubMed

Contact

Email Dr. Sosa-Pineda

Phone 312-503-2296

 Alexander Stegh Lab

Defining and targeting the oncogenome of Glioblastoma.

Research Description

Our research program is aimed at understanding the genetic program that underlies the pathogenesis of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most prevalent and malignant form of brain cancer. Applying a combination of cell/molecular biology, oncogenomic and mouse engineering approaches, we are dedicated to systematically characterize novel gliomagenic oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We will functionally delineate and validate these pathways using cell culture and animal models and develop novel nanotechnological approaches to target these aberrations in established tumors.

For more information see the faculty profile of Alexander H Stegh MD, PhD, or visit  the Alexander H. Stegh Lab website.

Recent Publications

View Dr. Stegh's full list of publications at PubMed

Contact

Alexander Stegh, MD, PhD, at 312-503-2879

 Edward Thorp Lab

The Thorp laboratory studies how immune cells coordinate tissue repair and regeneration under low oxygen, such as after a heart attack.

Research Interests

The Edward Thorp Lab studies the crosstalk between immune cells and the cardiovascular system and, in particular, within tissues characterized by low oxygen tension or associated with dyslipidemia, such as during myocardial infarction. In vivo, the lab interrogates the function of innate immune cell phagocytes, including macrophages, as they interact with other resident parenchymal cells during tissue repair and regeneration. Within the phagocyte, the influence of hypoxia and inflammation on intercellular and intracellular signaling networks and phagocyte function are studied in molecular detail. Taken together, our approach seeks to discover and link basic molecular and physiological networks that causally regulate disease progression and in turn are amenable to strategies for the amelioration of cardiovascular disease.

Publications

For additional information, visit the Thorp Lab site or view the faculty profile of Edward B Thorp, PhD.

View Dr. Thorp's publications at PubMed

Contact

Contact the Thorp lab at 312-503-3140.

Lab Staff

Shuang Zhang
PhD student
312-503-3140

Xin-Yi Yeap, MS
Lab Manager and Microsurgery
312-503-3140

 Gayle Woloschak Lab

Studying radiation-induced mutations in radiation-induced cancers; DNA-TiO2 nanoparticles; Radiosensitivity/motor neuron disease.

Research Description

Gayle E Woloschak, PhD
Gayle E Woloschak, PhD

The Woloschak Lab members focus their research on three main areas.

The Janus Project: Studying radiation-induced mutations in radiation-induced cancers

This 30 year, $200 million set of experiments were performed at 150 laboratories and then terminated before the data were completely analyzed. Funded by the Department of Energy and National Aeronautic and Space Administration, department radiobiologists will continue the data analyses.

Members of the Woloschak laboratory have assumed responsibility from Argonne National Laboratory for archiving tissue associated with 30,000 mice and 4,000 dogs that received various doses and dose-rates of radiation.

These studies examined the effects of dose-rate on radiation-induced toxicities and radiation-induced cancer. They are analyzing cancer cells from these tissues to find differences in mutational spectra that occur in tumors induced in radiation-exposed animals compared to those that occur in spontaneous tumors. Recent scientific concerns about very low dose exposures makes this effort particularly important.

Collaborators

  • University of Chicago
  • Bundewehr Radiobiology Institute in Munich
  • Argonne National Lab

DNA-TiO2 nanoparticles

The researchers have combined the functional properties of the biomolecule DNA and the inorganic compound TiO2. The project is oriented to investigating the functional use of these nanocomposites for intracellular manipulation, imaging and gene silencing.

Radiosensitivity/motor neuron disease

The project's purpose is to better understand the molecular basis for the combined abnormalities from a molecular-cellular perspective. Chip-based mRNA studies, gene promoter analyses, immunohistochemistry and standard molecular approaches are being used.

Learn More

For lab information and more, see Dr. Woloschak's faculty profile and Woloschak Lab site.

Publications

See Dr. Woloschak's publications in PubMed.

Contact

Contact Dr. Woloschak at 312-503-4323 or via email.

Research Assistant Professor

Tatjana Paunesku, PhD/ email

Additional Resources

  • Feinberg School of Medicine. Annual Report: Excellence in Research: The Bionanoprobe Penetrates More Deeply. Chicago, Feinberg School of Medicine, 2013.

 Jane Wu Lab

The Wu Laboratory seeks to understand molecular mechanisms regulating gene expression and their involvement in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration and tumor metastasis.

Research Description

RNA Processing and Neurodegeneration

Accumulating evidence supports that aberrant RNA processing represents a general pathogenic mechanism for neurodegeneration, including dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A number of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, especially various proteinopathies. Recent studies have defined TDP-43 and FUS proteinopathies, a group of heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders overlapping with dementia, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and ALS. Several important questions drive our research: what is physiological function of these RBPs? What are the fundamental mechanisms by which genetic mutations in or aberrant regulation of these RBPs cause neural damage? What are the earliest detectable molecular and cellular events that reflect the neural damage in these devastating neurological diseases? How to reverse/repair the neural damage and slow down the progression of these devastating diseases.

To address these questions, we have established cellular and animal models for both TDP-43 and FUS proteinopathies (Li et al, 2010;Barmada et al, 2010; Chen et al, 2011; Fushimi et al, 2011). Using combined biochemical, biophysical, molecular biology and cell biology approaches, we have begun to examine the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity induced by TDP-43 and FUS. Our recent work using atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM) and (NMR) approaches has shown the biochemical, biophysical and structural similarities between TDP-43 and classical amyloid proteins (Guo et al, 2011; Xu et al, 2013; Bigio et al, 2013). Our study has defined a minimal amyloidogenic region at the carboxyl terminal domain of TDP-43 that is sufficient for amyloid fibril formation and neurotoxicity (Guo et al, 2011; Zhu et al, unpublished). Using cellular and animal models for FUS proteinopathy, we have begun to identify the earliest detectable cellular damage caused by mutations in and overexpression of the human FUS gene. Our data have provided new insights into pathogenic mechanisms underlying these proteinopathies and suggested candidate targets for developing therapeutic approaches.

A critical step in mammalian gene expression is the removal of introns by the process of pre-mRNA splicing. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing, the process of generating multiple mRNA transcripts from a single genetic locus by alternative selection of distinct splice sites, is one of most powerful mechanisms for genetic diversity and an excellent means for fine-tuning gene activity. Many genes critical for neuronal survival and function undergo extensive alternative splicing. Splicing defects play important roles in neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and motor neuron diseases. For example, splicing mutations in the human tau gene and imbalance of tau splicing isoforms lead to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau-positive pathology (FTLD-tau). To understand mechanisms underlying FTLD-tau, we have set up a model system and developed a number of biochemical, molecular and cell biological assays to study alternative splicing of the human tau gene. Our work has led to the identification of a number of cis-elements and trans-acting RBPs controlling tau alternative splicing (Kar et al, 2006; Wu et al, 2006; Kar et al, 2011; Ray et al, 2011). Our experiments have begun to reveal previously unknown players in FTLD-tau and provided new candidate target genes for developing therapeutic strategy (Donahue et al, 2006; unpublished).

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Axon Guidance, Cell Migration & Tumor Metastasis

Another line of our research focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating cell migration and cancer metastasis. Previous studies from our group and others led to the discovery of Slit as a prototype of neuronal guidance cue. Our studies have shown that Slit interacts with Roundabout (Robo) and acts as a chemorepellent for axons and migrating neurons (Wu et al, 1999; Li et al, 1999;Yuasa-Kawada et al, 2009). Our work has demonstrated that Slit-Robo signaling modulates chemokines and inhibits migration of different types of cells, including cancer cells. The observation that Slit is frequently inactivated in a range of tumors suggests an important role of Slit in tumor suppression. We have established several assays and shown that Slit inhibits invasion and migration of cancer cells, including breast cancer, glioma and prostate cancer. We are using combined molecular and cell biology approaches to dissecting Slit-Robo signaling in neuronal guidance and tumor suppression. Our research has provided new insights into signal transduction pathways mediating Slit function. Enhancing or activating the endogenous mechanisms that restrict or suppress cancer invasion/metastasis will likely provide novel approaches to cancer metastasis. 

For more information please view the faculty profile of Jane Wu, MD, PhD or visit the Wu Lab website.

Recent Publications

View a full list of publications by Jane Wu at PubMed

Contact Us

Jane Wu, MD, PhD, at 312-503-0684

 

 Rui Yi Lab

Investigate mechanisms of skin development, stem cells, aging and cancer at the single-cell level

Research Description

Mammalian skin and its appendages function as the outermost barrier of the body to protect inner organs from environmental hazards and keep essential fluid within. Our research program studies mechanisms that govern cell fate specification, stem cell maintenance and aging as well as initiation and progression of cancer. We use single-cell genomics and computational tools, live animal imaging and genetically engineered mouse models to study gene expression regulation mediated by transcription factors, epigenetic regulators and post-transcriptional mechanisms mediated by miRNAs and RNA binding proteins at the single-cell resolution in mammalian skin. 

Our research aims to address several fundamental questions in stem cell biology: how the developmental potential of embryonic progenitors and adult tissue stem cells is transmitted or restricted in their progenies at the molecular level when they go through critical transitions such as cell fate specification, self-renewal of stem cells as well as stress response, and how these regulatory mechanisms go awry in aging and diseases. Answers to these questions will help to manipulate skin stem cells for regenerative medicine and discover new treatment for human skin diseases.​

View all lab publications via PubMed.

For more information, visit the faculty profile page of Rui Yi, PhD or visit the Yi Laboratory website.

Contact Us

Email Dr. Yi

 

 

 

 Youyang Zhao Lab

The Zhao Lab studies the molecular mechanisms of endothelial regeneration and resolution of inflammatory injury as well as endothelial and smooth muscle cell interaction in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular diseases.

Research Description

Recovery of endothelial barrier integrity after vascular injury is vital for endothelial homeostasis and resolution of inflammation. Endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of vascular diseases such as acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and atherosclerosis. A part of the research in the lab, employing genetically modified mouse models of human diseases, endothelial progenitor cells/stem cells, and translational research approach as well as nanomedicine, is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of endothelial regeneration and resolution of inflammatory injury and determine how aging and epigenetics regulate these processes (J. Clin. Invest. 2006, 116: 2333; J. Exp. Med. 2010, 207:1675; Circulation 2016, 133: 2447).  We are also studying the role of endothelial cells in regulating macrophage functional polarization and resolving inflammatory lung injury. These studies will identify druggable targets leading to novel therapeutic strategies to activate the intrinsic endothelial regeneration program to restore endothelial barrier integrity and reverse edema formation for the prevention and treatment of ARDS in patients.

Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease with poor prognosis and high mortality. We are currently investigating the molecular basis underlying the pathogenesis.  We have recently identified the first mouse model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with obliterative vascular remodeling including vascular occlusion and formation of plexiform-like lesions resembling the pathology of clinical PAH (Circulation 2016, 133: 2447). Our previous studies also show the critical role of oxidative/nitrative stress in the pathogenesis of PAH as seen in patients (PNAS 2002, 99:11375; J. Clin. Invest. 2009, 119: 2009). With these unique models and lung tissue and cells from idiopathic PAH patients, we will define the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying severe vascular remodeling and provide novel therapeutic approaches for this devastating disease. 

The Zhao lab employs the state-of-the art technologies including genetic lineage tracing, genetic depletion, genetic reporter, and CRISPR-mediated in vivo genomic editing as well as patient samples to study the molecular mechanisms of acute lung injury/ARDS, and pulmonary hypertension and identify novel therapeutics for these devastating diseases. Current studies include 1) molecular mechanisms of endothelial regeneration and vascular repair following inflammatory lung injury induced by sepsis and pneumonia; 2) how aging and epigenetics regulate this process; 3) how endothelial cells regulate macrophage and neuptrophil function for resolution of inflammation and host defense; 4) stem/progenitor cells in acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension and cell-based therapy; 5) mechanisms of obliterative pulmonary vascular remodeling; 6) molecular basis of right heart failure; 7) pathogenic role of oxidative/nitrative stress; 8) lung regeneration; 9) drug discovery; 10) nanomedicine.


Publications

View publications by Youyang Zhao in PubMed.

For more information, visit Dr. Zhao's Faculty Profile page

Contact

Email Dr. Zhao

Contact Dr. Zhao’s Lab at 773-755-6355

Lab Staff

Zhiyu Dai, PhD.
Research Assistant Professor

Xianming Zhang, PhD.
Research Assistant Professor

Narsa Machireddy, PhD.
Research Assistant Professor

Junjie Xing, PhD.
Research Scientist

Colin Evans, PhD.
Research Scientist

Varsha Suresh Kumar, PhD.
Research Scientist

Xiaojia Huang, PhD
Research Scientist

Hua Jin, PhD
Postdoctoral fellow

Yi Peng, PhD
Research Scientist

Mengqi Zhu, M.S.,
Graduate Student

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