Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Department of Anesthesiology

Department Milestones

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine has played a significant role in the study and practice of Anesthesiology in Chicago and the world. Following is a timeline of our leaders and major research milestones.

Department Chair, 2016-present

HogueCharles Hogue, Jr., MD, a renowned specialist in cardiovascular and thoracic anesthesiology, has was named Chair and Professor of the Department of Anesthesiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Northwestern Memorial Healthcare, effective July 1, 2016. Dr. Hogue served as chief of the Division of Adult Anesthesia in the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine from 2005-2016.

Dr. Hogue completed an internal medicine internship in 1987 at the Jewish Hospital of St. Louis/Washington University School of Medicine and an anesthesiology residency at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. He was a clinical fellow at Harvard Medical School and a research fellow at the Shriners Burn Institute and then served on the Washington University faculty from 1990 to 2004 before joining the Johns Hopkins faculty in 2005. He earned his medical degree in 1986 at the University of Illinois College of Medicine in Chicago.

Dr. Hogue is a leading clinical investigator developing methods to predict, monitor the risk of and prevent such complications. He has been the principal investigator of 25 studies funded by several sources, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH); NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI); American Heart Association; and pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers. Dr. Hogue brings with him to Northwestern a nearly $1.69 million NHLBI grant to investigate continuous cerebral-autoregulation monitoring as a means of reducing brain injury.

Department Chair, 2000-2015

Dr. Christine StockM. Christine Stock, ’81 MD - After completing her MD degree (1981), residency (1984) and critical care fellowship (1985) at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine, Chris joined the faculty of Emory University in Atlanta. While assistant professor of anesthesiology at Emory from 1985-91, Dr. Stock also was Medical Director of Respiratory Care Services and Medical Co-Director of the Surgical Intensive Care Unit at Grady Memorial Hospital, a primary teaching hospital for Emory University medical students and residents. Promoted to tenured associate professor in 1991, she was named Associate Chief of Anesthesiology Services at Emory University Hospital in 1994 and Clinical Service Chief for the department in 1998.

In addition to her clinical and administrative roles at Emory, Dr. Stock was both a laboratory and clinical investigator, maintaining an independently funded laboratory. Her research focused on the development of mechanical ventilatory support techniques and the study of oxygen consumption related to changes in the work of breathing. Working with John B. Downs, MD, Dr. Stock was instrumental in the development of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), a mode of mechanical ventilation that reduced ventilator-induced lung injury in already compromised lungs. APRV is now a mainstay of lung-protective ventilation strategies for patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Dr. Stock’s work on the rate at which levels of carbon dioxide rise during apnea is one of the most frequently cited references in medical malpractice cases involving alleged inadequate ventilation.

In Octobeer 2000 Dr. Stock was named Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) and Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation (NMFF). She was the first woman to chair a clinical department at our institution. Dr. Stock served as a member of the Board of Directors at NMFF, Northwestern Healthcare Corporation, Rubicon, Inc, and Northwestern Memorial Foundation. She was a member of both of NMFF and NMF Boards’ Executive Committees, and served on various other committees throughout NM institutions and Northwestern University.

Dr. Stock has been a leader in several national organizations. She was president of the Association of Anesthesia Clinical Directors and the American Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists. She is president elect of Association of Anesthesiology Program Directors and has been a senior examiner for the American Board of Anesthesiology since 1999.

Dr. Stock is a past president of the Association of Anesthesia Clinical Directors, the American Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists, the Society of Academic Anesthesiology Chairs, and the Organization of Program Directors Organizations. She has been an oral board  examiner for the American Board of Anesthesiology since 1990, and was promoted to senior examiner in 1999. Dr. Stock is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, an editor of Clinical Anesthesia (in its 8th edition and sold world-wide) and its companion Fundamentals of Clinical Anesthesia, and co-editor of the Handbook of Mechanical Ventilatory Support. She and her husband, Stuart, raised three children (ages 7, 10, and 12 at the time she joined Northwestern in 2000). She enjoys writing, fitness, and cooking; and, along with Stuart, is an avid ballroom dancer.

StockPortrait After nearly 15 years of leadership, Dr. Stock stepped down as chair of the department. “During her tenure as chair, Christine has provided strong leadership to the Department of Anesthesiology,” said Eric G. Neilson, MD, vice president for Medical Affairs and Lewis Landsberg Dean. “Faculty, residents and students have benefited from her thoughtful mentorship, and she has seen the department through a time of significant change, both within the medical school and in the field of anesthesiology. We thank her for her service.” To honor Dr. Stock's contributions to the department and medical center, The Feinberg School of Medicine commissioned a portrait of her, which was unveiled on July 7, 2016. Dr. Stock continues to be an active member of the Department of Anesthesiology, training residents and fellows in the operating room and critical care medicine.

Department Co-Chair, 1999-2000

Steven C. Hall, MD, FAAPSteven C. Hall, MD, FAAP - Dr. Steven C. Hall was Anesthesiologist-in-Chief and Arthur C. King Professor of Pediatric Anesthesia at Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago from 1992-2011. Dr. Hall graduated magna cum laude from Cornell College in 1970 with a BA in Psychology. He received his MD degree in 1974 from Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. Upon completion of his residency in Anesthesiology at Northwestern and a fellowship in Pediatric Anesthesia at Children's Memorial Hospital and the Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto), he joined the staff at Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and the Department of Anesthesiology at Northwestern University in 1978. He has served as a Director of both the Children Medical Center and Children’s Foundation Boards. He also served as the Program Director of the ACGME-accredited fellowship in Pediatric Anesthesia at Children’s from 1985-2011.

In addition to his roles and activities at CMH, Dr. Hall has served as the President of the Illinois Society of Anesthesiologists and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia. Among his various awards, Dr. Hall received the Distinguished Service Award and the William O. McQuiston Award for outstanding contribution to anesthesiology by the Illinois Society of Anesthesiology. He has been Director and Secretary of the American Board of Anesthesiology, as well as Director of the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research and an Oral Board Examiner. He has served as a representative to the American Board of Medical Specialties and the Residency Review Committee of the ACGME. He has participated on numerous national committees of various medical organizations and has extensively published and has been an invited lecturer at many national and international meetings, on topics in the field of pediatric anesthesia.

Department Co-Chair, 1999-2000

Jeffery S. Vender, MD, FCCP, FCCM, MBAJeffery S. Vender, MD, FCCP, FCCM, MBA - Jeffery Vender, MD, served as Interim Chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology from September 1999 until October 2000. Dr. Vender graduated from Northwestern University in 1971 with a BS in Biology and Northwestern University Medical School in 1975. In 1998 he earned an MBA degree from Northwestern University Kellogg School of Management. Upon completion of his anesthesiology residency and critical care medicine fellowship training in 1979, he joined the staff at Evanston Northwestern Healthcare and the Department of Anesthesiology at Northwestern University. In 1994 he was promoted to Professor of Anesthesiology, a title he held until 2009 when Evanston Hospital disaffiliated itself from McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University. Dr. Vender is currently a Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine.

In addition to his roles and activities at ENH, Dr. Vender served as the President of the Illinois Society of Anesthesiologists and the American Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists. Among his various awards, Dr. Vender received the William O. McQuiston Award for outstanding contribution to anesthesiology by the Illinois Society of Anesthesiology. He also received the Schaffner Award from the Kellogg School of Management. He was on the Board of Directors of the American Association of Respiratory Care and the American College of Chest Physicians. He has participated on numerous national committees of various medical organizations, edited several medical texts and has extensively published and has been an invited lecturer at over 250 national and international meetings, on topics in the field of anesthesiology, critical care and organizational change. In addition, Dr. Vender served as an editor and/or reviewer for many medical journals. In 2012, Dr. Vender received the "Presidential Citation" from the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

Department Chair, 1995-1999

Barry A. Shapiro, MDBarry A. Shapiro, MD - In 1970, Dr. Shapiro began working at Wesley Memorial Hospital, one of two hospitals which merged to form Northwestern Memorial. He then worked as an associate attending staff physician at Northwestern Memorial between 1973 and 1975. Between 1975 and 1991, he was medical director of respiratory care and associate director for respiratory care services for four intensive care units. Dr. Shapiro served as the associate medical director of the Spinal Cord Trauma Unit between 1980 and 1991.In 1985, Dr. Shapiro became Director of the Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Program at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Beginning in 1990, Dr. Shapiro served as Vice Chair in the Department of Anesthesiology and in 1995 he was named Chairman of Anesthesiology at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation and Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine.

In 1980, Dr. Shapiro was appointed full Professor of Anesthesiology and a Professor of Rehabilitation Medicine at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. In 1996, Dr. Shapiro was appointed James E. Eckenhoff Professor of Anesthesiology. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Michigan in 1959. He earned his M.D. from Michigan’s Medical School in 1963. He also completed his internship, anesthesiology residency and fellowship in intensive respiratory care at Michigan. He served in the U.S. Army Medical Corps for two years. In 1994, Dr. Shapiro received his Masters of Management from the Kellogg Graduate School of Management of Northwestern University.

Dr. Shapiro was elected a fellow in the American College of Critical Care Medicine and was chairman of the board of regents. He has been named in the first and second editions of Best Doctors in America. Dr. Shapiro served as associate editor of Critical Care Medicine from 1990-1999. He is chief author of the text Clinical Applications of Blood Gases, which has been translated into seven languages. In 1992, Dr. Shapiro received the Bernard H. Eliasberg Medal for Outstanding Contributions to the Care of Patients with Respiratory Failure from the department of anesthesiology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. In 1994 Dr. Shapiro received the William O. McQuiston Award for Outstanding Contributions to Anesthesiology by the Illinois Society of Anesthesiology. Dr. Shapiro passed away in October 2008.

Department Chair, 1971-1996

Edward A. Brunner, MD, PhDEdward A. Brunner, MD, PhD - Dr. Brunner received his MD degree in 1959 and his PhD in Pharmacology in 1962 from Hahneman Medical College. Dr. Brunner completed his anesthesiology residency training at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital in 1965. Also in 1965, he completed his postdoctoral training in Pharmacology from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Brunner joined Northwestern University’s Department of Anesthesiology in 1966 as Assistant Professor of Anesthesia. In 1971, Dr. Brunner was named Chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology for Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. In 1980, he was named “Outstanding Graduate of Hahneman Medical College.” Also in 1971, Dr. Brunner became the Residency Program Director, a position he maintained until he retired in 1996.

In 1986, Dr. Brunner was named James E. Eckenhoff Professor of Anesthesiology at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. In 1992, Dr. Brunner was named “Alumnus of the Year” by Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine.

In 1977, Dr. Brunner published research which proposed a theory for the mechanism by which anesthetic drugs work. He and his research team was the first to suggest that anesthetics work by enhancing the inhibitory process in the central nervous system. Dr. Brunner became interested in research while a doctoral student in Dr. Joseph DiPalma’s Department of Pharmacology at Hahnemann and has published several hundred scientific papers, many on topics relating to the mechanism of anesthesia. Dr. Brunner spent seven years at Hahnemann as a medical student, intern and doctoral student. While an intern, he made medical history by resuscitating a hypothermic man by performing an open thoracotomy in the Emergency Department and pouring bucketsful of warm tap water into the patient’s open chest cavity to reverse the hypothermia.

Dr. Brunner is the Founding Editor-in-Chief of Current Problems in Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine. Dr. Brunner has contributed to the writing of the chapter on anesthesia in Christopher’s Textbook of Surgery and several chapters in Introduction to Anesthesia and General Thoracic Surgery. He has also contributed to a chapter in Pain Management in Cancer Patients and has written more than 100 scientific articles on the mechanism of action of anesthetic agents and related subjects.

Dr. Brunner has served as President of the Society of Academic Anesthesia Chairmen and the Illinois Society of Anesthesiologists. From 1990-1994, Dr. Brunner was a member of the Committee on Excellence in Research for the American Society of Anesthesiologists. He was a Senior Associate Examiner for the American Board of Anesthesiologists from 1967-1992. In 1995, the Illinois Society of Anesthesiologists honored Dr. Brunner with the “Distinguished Service Award”. From 1992-1996, Dr. Brunner was a member of the Board of Appeals Panel for Anesthesiology for ACGME. Dr. Brunner retired in 1996.

Founder of Northwestern University's Department of Anesthesiology, 1966-1970

James E. Eckenhoff, MDJames E. Eckenhoff, MD - Dr. Eckenhoff attended Transylvania College and the University of Kentucky before entering the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, from which he graduated in 1941. Following an internship at the Good Samaritan Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, he entered military service as a battalion surgeon and, fortuitously for anesthesia, was later assigned as an anesthetist to the 107th Evacuation Hospital in the European Theatre of Operations. He did not seek this assignment and did not receive any special training prior to assuming the post! Displayed in the Dripps Anesthesia Library at the University of Pennsylvania is the spring 1945 correspondence between Dr. Eckenhoff and Robert D. Dripps, MD, that led to Dr. Eckenhoff's return to Philadelphia to serve his residency under Dr. Dripps. This was the beginning of one of the best-known and most productive partnerships in academic anesthesiology.

In 1966, Dr. Eckenhoff moved to Chicago to become professor and chair of the Department of Anesthesia at Northwestern University Medical School, a position he held until 1970, when he was appointed dean of the University's medical school. He held that position until retirement in 1983. In addition, Dr. Eckenhoff served as president of the Northwestern University McGaw Medical Center (1980-85); director (1965-73) and president (1972-73) of the American Board of Anesthesiology; and president of the Association of University Anesthetists (1962).

In addition to serving ASA as editor-in-chief of the journal Anesthesiology from 1958-62, Dr. Eckenhoff was president of the Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology from 1968-70 and was the 1980 recipient of the ASA Distinguished Service Award. In his professional career, Dr. Eckenhoff made considerable contributions to the specialty of anesthesia in particular and to medicine in general.

Numerous honors have been bestowed on him through the years, including the Hunterian Professorship of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, in 1965; an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Transylvania University in 1970; the Ralph M. Waters Award of the Illinois Society of Anesthesiologists in 1984; and the creation of the James E. Eckenhoff Chair in Anesthesiology at Northwestern University in 1987, a title which the current department chair, Charles Hogue, MD, was bestowed in 2016. The Department of Veterans Affairs awarded Dr. Eckenhoff its Distinguished Service Award in 1989.

Dr. Eckenhoff passed away on November 25, 1996. He was 81.

Note: The American Society of Anesthesiologists and Dr. Norig Ellison, grant Northwestern University's Department of Anesthesiology permission to use portions of the above text in the history section of its Web site. The full article can be viewed in the ASA Newsletter, dated January 1997.

Research History

Robert H. Lurie Medical Research Center - In April 2005 the new 12-story Robert H. Lurie Medical Research Center of Northwestern University was completed. At a cost of $200 million, the center contains approximately 185,000 square feet of research space for laboratories in the fields of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, human genetics, neurosciences, spinal injury and liver transplantation. The new center will accommodate approximately 1000 researchers, technicians, postdoctoral students, lab assistants and staff. Along with the renovation of 30,000 square feet in the McGaw Pavilion, research space has increased by 75% for the Feinberg School of Medicine. In 2006, the State of Illinois gave Northwestern University $3.5 million for stem cell research. Most of the money went to Mary J.C. Hendrix, PhD for studies of human stem cells to determine their potential to reverse the progression of malignant tumors, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's disease, brain injury and epilepsy.

On November 17, 2003 the Mary Beth Donnelley Clinical Pharmacology Center of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center was formally dedicated.  The Richard Donnelley family donated over a half-million dollars to the Northwestern Memorial Foundation in memory of Mary Beth Donnelley to establish the Center located in the Department's research area on the 13th floor of the Ward building.

Michael Avram, PhD was named the director of the facility with Tom Krejcie, MD the associate director.  Technical support for the facility will be provided by Lynn Luong, BS and Kiril Raikoff, MS.  The facility includes a state-of-the-art liquid chromatography system connected to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer enabling us to detect less than nanogram quantities of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy and cancer-related pain therapy.

Ecknhff and Brunnr

Drs. James E. Eckenhoff & Edward A. Brunner c1986